Saturday, May 23, 2020

Women s Experiences During The Holocaust - 898 Words

While women’s experiences during the Holocaust were not entirely different from those of men, it would be false and misleading to assert that they were identical. There were many instances in which an individual’s ordeal was shaped by his or her gender and it is only by understanding what was unique to women and children, and what was unique to men, that we can provide a complete account of what occurred during the Holocaust. One of the reasons it took so long for historians to comprehend the importance of these perspectives is because women were busy rebuilding their lives after the Holocaust. It wasn’t until the 1970s when feminist scholarship was sparked, that there became an interest in the stories of women survivors. Eventually, after the women were able to put their lives back together and raise their children, it became important for them to share their memoirs. One source of gender difference during the Holocaust experience women had more anticipatory reactions towards Nazi danger. In Germany, even before the 1938 Kristallnacht pogrom, it was often the women who had to assume new roles to rescue other family members. It was assumed that the Nazis would not harm women, so it was typically women who went to the police, the SS and the municipality to protest haphazard actions against their children and families and to secure the release of husbands and sons who had been detained or arrested. In organizing and arranging the details of everyday life, such as who shouldShow MoreRelated Women and the Holocaust Essay example706 Words   |  3 PagesWomen and the Holocaust nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The Jewish female is like the ovule of a flower, it spreads its seeds to create future generations. It is known that the true root of a Jewish person lies in the hands of his/her mother. As it was once said by Golda Meir, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“To be successful, a woman has to be much better at her job than a man.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? (Golda Meir Quotes par. 1). And in fact it is true, that women had to be better than man to survive the holocaust, but not only to survive the holocaustRead MoreA Diary Every Day By Anne Frank1681 Words   |  7 PagesSix million innocent, loving, caring Jewish people were ruthlessly murdered during the Holocaust, yet there was little insight into exactly how these people were treated before their deaths. However, one girl, by the name of Anne Frank, wrote in her diary every day, unaware that her diary entries would solve this issue. She was born in the large German town of Frankfurt. Anne was an ordinary child, with dreams for her future, and friends and family who supported and loved her, unaware that she wouldRead MoreCultivating The Gardens : Candide And Night1577 Words   |  7 PagesChris Skowron Professor Dwan Simmons English 2110 November 26th, 2014 Cultivating the gardens: Candide and Night The Holocaust was a genocide in which approximately six million Jews were killed by the Nazi regime under the command of Adolf Hitler. While many did perish during the holocaust, some survived to tell the haunting tales of what they endured. One of which was a young Romanian man named Elie Wiesel, a Jewish-American professor and political activist. (The Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity)Read MoreThe Trains Of Treblinka Which Carried The Prized Possessions Of The Most Horrible Events912 Words   |  4 PagesThe holocaust can be regarded as one of the most awful events in history and the swastika continues to be a constant reminder of the horrendous acts of hate that were bestowed onto human lives. More than 1 million people were brutally murdered at the hands of an evil dictator named Adolf Hitler. Some of the vivid events and actions that took place during this time have been highlighted in the poem â€Å"The Trains† written by William Heyen. Heyen discusses the trains of Treblinka which carried the prizedRead More THE HOLOCAUST Essay1711 Words   |  7 PagesTHE HOLOCAUST The Holocaust was the mass annihilation of the European Jews by the National Socialist Party (Nazi) of Germany from 1933 to 1945. In The War of the Jews, Dawidowicz explains the conditions that made anti-Semitism politically acceptable. The Germans of the nineteenth century inherited a Christian-inspired popular and intellectual anti-Semitism that depicted Jews as foreigners- a state within a state- killers of Christ, well poisoners, and a cause of every misfortune, whether naturalRead MoreThe Horrors Of The Holocaust1605 Words   |  7 PagesSpeculations about the grim events during the very horrific Holocaust are unfortunately being denied stating it was not as gruesome as many may have stated it was or did not even exist to begin with. This is not only outrageous but disrespectful to those who lost their lives during the gruesome time. History states that the Holocaust was a period in time where a very fascist dictator, Adolf Hitler, killed over six million European Jews who di d not fit the criteria of genetically having blonde hairRead MoreThe Destruction Of The Holocaust1203 Words   |  5 PagesSix million jews. Six million innocent men, women and children. Emerging from the ashes and corpses, one man had the intention of preserving this tragedy, yet at the same time preventing it. Elie Wiesel’s fulfilled his purpose of showing the heinous crimes of the Holocaust through the change of characterization of Elie before, during and after the events of Wiesel s 1940 memoir-Night. The Holocaust is remembered as a stain on history, where a massive genocide occurred. but we must also recognizeRead MoreSchindler s Morals And The Holocaust955 Words   |  4 Pages 1. Throughout the film, Oskar Schindler s morals changed as the film progressed, he transformed into caring person from an acquisitive person. Schindler is a flawed person. In the beginning of the film, Schindler s sole purpose was to make a profit of the war by hiring Jewish people and using the Jewish people s wealth to create the company. However, as Schindler s relationship with Itzhak Stern progressed and witnessing the violence towards the Jews, he started to reconsider his actions. ForRead MoreElie Wiesel s The Holocaust1315 Words   |  6 PagesThe Holocaust appeared to be a time of darkness and it seemed like on Earth and in heaven, each doorway of humanity, empathy, and kindness had been closed down. Those who did not encounter the Holocaust cannot begin to comprehend what it was like, however, those who did cannot begin to express it. Torture, genocide, and cruel acts started to fill brains and souls. The Holocaust was an event where millions of people were being murdered during World War II. The memoir, Night by Elie Wiesel is basedRead MoreThe Causes And Historical Origins Of The Gulag Archipelago1381 Words   |  6 PagesMost of books especially those written by survivors about the experience of holocaust have mainly two purposes. The first one is to record the full horror of the historical crimes such as holocaust, labor forced camps, and etc. The second one is detailed explanation and description of the causes and historical origins of that experience. The Gulag Archipelago is a three volume non-fictional book written by a famous Russian historian, novelist, story writer, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn between 1958 and

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Do Bug Zappers Kill Mosquitoes

Mosquito bites arent just an annoyance; they can be deadly. Mosquitoes transmit serious diseases, from malaria to West Nile virus. If youre planning to spend any time outdoors, you should protect yourself from mosquito bites. Many people hang insect electrocution lights, or bug zappers, in their backyards to kill biting insects. Unfortunately, research shows that most bug zappers do little to eliminate mosquitoes. Worse, they are more likely to eliminate beneficial insects that provide food for birds, bats, and fish. How Bug Zappers Work Bug zappers attract insects using ultraviolet light. The light fixture is surrounded by a mesh cage, which is energized with a low-voltage current. Insects are drawn to the UV light, attempt to pass through the electrified mesh, and are subsequently electrocuted. Most bug zappers are designed with a collection tray where the dead insects accumulate. From dusk until dawn, homeowners with bug zappers hear the satisfying crackle of insects meeting their maker. How Mosquitoes Find Blood When evaluating mosquito control products, its important to understand how mosquitoes locate a source of blood. In other words, think about how the mosquito finds someone to bite. Regardless of whether theyre human, canine, equine, or avian, all living blood sources emit carbon dioxide. Mosquitoes, like most biting insects, can home in on the scent of carbon dioxide in the air. Research suggests a bloodthirsty mosquito can detect carbon dioxide from as far as 35 meters away from its source. At the slightest hint of CO2, the mosquito begins flying in zigzags, using trial and error to pinpoint the person or animal in the area. Carbon dioxide is the most powerful attractant for mosquitoes. Mosquitoes also use other scent clues to find people to bite. Perfume, sweat, and even body odor can attract mosquitoes. Research Proves Bug Zappers Are Ineffective for Killing Mosquitoes Bug zappers attract insects using ultraviolet light. Mosquitoes find their blood meals by following the trail of carbon dioxide. Occasionally, a mosquito will get curious about the pretty light and make the fatal mistake of getting too close. But theres no guarantee that mosquito is even a female, and therefore  a biting mosquito. In fact, many of the mosquitoes found in bug zappers are actually nonbiting insects called midges. In 1977, researchers from the University of Guelph conducted a study to determine how effective bug zapper products are at killing mosquitoes and reducing mosquito populations where they are used. They found that just 4.1% of the insects killed in the bug zappers were female (and therefore biting) mosquitoes. The study also found the yards with bug zappers had higher numbers of female mosquitoes than those without bug zappers. University of Notre Dame researchers conducted a similar study in 1982, with similar results. In an average night, a single bug zapper in South Bend, Indiana, killed 3,212 insects, but only 3.3% of the dead insects were female mosquitoes. In addition, these researchers found that the UV light seemed to draw more mosquitoes to the area, leading to more mosquito bites.   In 1996, researchers at the University of Delaware tallied an entire summers worth of dead bugs from bug zappers. Of a total of 13,789 insects killed in the bug zappers, a paltry 0.22%  of them were biting mosquitoes or gnats. Worse, almost half of the dead insects were harmless, aquatic insects, an important food for fish and other stream inhabitants. These insects help control pest insect populations, meaning bug zappers could actually make pest problems worse. Scientists at the UF/IFAS Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory in Vero Beach, Florida, also examined the effectiveness of bug zappers in 1997. A single bug zapper in their study killed 10,000 insects in one night, but just eight of the dead bugs were mosquitoes. New Octenol Bug Zappers In recent years, a new type of zapper has appeared on the market that uses carbon dioxide and octenol—a nontoxic, pesticide-free pheromone—to attract mosquitoes. Logically, this new type of zapper should attract and kill more mosquitoes, leaving your yard pest-free. Unfortunately, studies show that octenol does little to increase the number of mosquitoes killed per night. Instead, it attracts even more mosquitoes to your yard, while killing about the same number of pests as a strip of sticky tape. Study after study has proven that bug zappers do very little or nothing at all to put a dent in the biting mosquito population. On the other hand, limiting mosquito breeding habitat and using appropriate mosquito deterrents like DEET does protect you from mosquito bites, and from the diseases mosquitoes carry. Sources Surgeoner, G. A., and B. V. Helson. 1977. A field evaluation of electrocutors for mosquito control in southern Ontario. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ontario 108:53–58.Nasci, RS, CW. Harris and CK Porter. 1983. Failure of an insect electrocuting device to reduce mosquito biting. Mosquito News. 43:180–184.Frick, TB and DW Tallamy. 1996. Density and diversity of nontarget insects killed by suburban electric insect traps. Ent. News. 107:77-82.University Of Florida, Institute Of Food Agricultural Sciences, 1997. Snap! Crackle! Pop! Electric Bug Zappers Are Useless For Controlling Mosquitoes, Says UF/IFAS Pest Expert Accessed September 4, 2012.

Do Bug Zappers Kill Mosquitoes

Mosquito bites arent just an annoyance; they can be deadly. Mosquitoes transmit serious diseases, from malaria to West Nile virus. If youre planning to spend any time outdoors, you should protect yourself from mosquito bites. Many people hang insect electrocution lights, or bug zappers, in their backyards to kill biting insects. Unfortunately, research shows that most bug zappers do little to eliminate mosquitoes. Worse, they are more likely to eliminate beneficial insects that provide food for birds, bats, and fish. How Bug Zappers Work Bug zappers attract insects using ultraviolet light. The light fixture is surrounded by a mesh cage, which is energized with a low-voltage current. Insects are drawn to the UV light, attempt to pass through the electrified mesh, and are subsequently electrocuted. Most bug zappers are designed with a collection tray where the dead insects accumulate. From dusk until dawn, homeowners with bug zappers hear the satisfying crackle of insects meeting their maker. How Mosquitoes Find Blood When evaluating mosquito control products, its important to understand how mosquitoes locate a source of blood. In other words, think about how the mosquito finds someone to bite. Regardless of whether theyre human, canine, equine, or avian, all living blood sources emit carbon dioxide. Mosquitoes, like most biting insects, can home in on the scent of carbon dioxide in the air. Research suggests a bloodthirsty mosquito can detect carbon dioxide from as far as 35 meters away from its source. At the slightest hint of CO2, the mosquito begins flying in zigzags, using trial and error to pinpoint the person or animal in the area. Carbon dioxide is the most powerful attractant for mosquitoes. Mosquitoes also use other scent clues to find people to bite. Perfume, sweat, and even body odor can attract mosquitoes. Research Proves Bug Zappers Are Ineffective for Killing Mosquitoes Bug zappers attract insects using ultraviolet light. Mosquitoes find their blood meals by following the trail of carbon dioxide. Occasionally, a mosquito will get curious about the pretty light and make the fatal mistake of getting too close. But theres no guarantee that mosquito is even a female, and therefore  a biting mosquito. In fact, many of the mosquitoes found in bug zappers are actually nonbiting insects called midges. In 1977, researchers from the University of Guelph conducted a study to determine how effective bug zapper products are at killing mosquitoes and reducing mosquito populations where they are used. They found that just 4.1% of the insects killed in the bug zappers were female (and therefore biting) mosquitoes. The study also found the yards with bug zappers had higher numbers of female mosquitoes than those without bug zappers. University of Notre Dame researchers conducted a similar study in 1982, with similar results. In an average night, a single bug zapper in South Bend, Indiana, killed 3,212 insects, but only 3.3% of the dead insects were female mosquitoes. In addition, these researchers found that the UV light seemed to draw more mosquitoes to the area, leading to more mosquito bites.   In 1996, researchers at the University of Delaware tallied an entire summers worth of dead bugs from bug zappers. Of a total of 13,789 insects killed in the bug zappers, a paltry 0.22%  of them were biting mosquitoes or gnats. Worse, almost half of the dead insects were harmless, aquatic insects, an important food for fish and other stream inhabitants. These insects help control pest insect populations, meaning bug zappers could actually make pest problems worse. Scientists at the UF/IFAS Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory in Vero Beach, Florida, also examined the effectiveness of bug zappers in 1997. A single bug zapper in their study killed 10,000 insects in one night, but just eight of the dead bugs were mosquitoes. New Octenol Bug Zappers In recent years, a new type of zapper has appeared on the market that uses carbon dioxide and octenol—a nontoxic, pesticide-free pheromone—to attract mosquitoes. Logically, this new type of zapper should attract and kill more mosquitoes, leaving your yard pest-free. Unfortunately, studies show that octenol does little to increase the number of mosquitoes killed per night. Instead, it attracts even more mosquitoes to your yard, while killing about the same number of pests as a strip of sticky tape. Study after study has proven that bug zappers do very little or nothing at all to put a dent in the biting mosquito population. On the other hand, limiting mosquito breeding habitat and using appropriate mosquito deterrents like DEET does protect you from mosquito bites, and from the diseases mosquitoes carry. Sources Surgeoner, G. A., and B. V. Helson. 1977. A field evaluation of electrocutors for mosquito control in southern Ontario. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ontario 108:53–58.Nasci, RS, CW. Harris and CK Porter. 1983. Failure of an insect electrocuting device to reduce mosquito biting. Mosquito News. 43:180–184.Frick, TB and DW Tallamy. 1996. Density and diversity of nontarget insects killed by suburban electric insect traps. Ent. News. 107:77-82.University Of Florida, Institute Of Food Agricultural Sciences, 1997. Snap! Crackle! Pop! Electric Bug Zappers Are Useless For Controlling Mosquitoes, Says UF/IFAS Pest Expert Accessed September 4, 2012.

Do Bug Zappers Kill Mosquitoes

Mosquito bites arent just an annoyance; they can be deadly. Mosquitoes transmit serious diseases, from malaria to West Nile virus. If youre planning to spend any time outdoors, you should protect yourself from mosquito bites. Many people hang insect electrocution lights, or bug zappers, in their backyards to kill biting insects. Unfortunately, research shows that most bug zappers do little to eliminate mosquitoes. Worse, they are more likely to eliminate beneficial insects that provide food for birds, bats, and fish. How Bug Zappers Work Bug zappers attract insects using ultraviolet light. The light fixture is surrounded by a mesh cage, which is energized with a low-voltage current. Insects are drawn to the UV light, attempt to pass through the electrified mesh, and are subsequently electrocuted. Most bug zappers are designed with a collection tray where the dead insects accumulate. From dusk until dawn, homeowners with bug zappers hear the satisfying crackle of insects meeting their maker. How Mosquitoes Find Blood When evaluating mosquito control products, its important to understand how mosquitoes locate a source of blood. In other words, think about how the mosquito finds someone to bite. Regardless of whether theyre human, canine, equine, or avian, all living blood sources emit carbon dioxide. Mosquitoes, like most biting insects, can home in on the scent of carbon dioxide in the air. Research suggests a bloodthirsty mosquito can detect carbon dioxide from as far as 35 meters away from its source. At the slightest hint of CO2, the mosquito begins flying in zigzags, using trial and error to pinpoint the person or animal in the area. Carbon dioxide is the most powerful attractant for mosquitoes. Mosquitoes also use other scent clues to find people to bite. Perfume, sweat, and even body odor can attract mosquitoes. Research Proves Bug Zappers Are Ineffective for Killing Mosquitoes Bug zappers attract insects using ultraviolet light. Mosquitoes find their blood meals by following the trail of carbon dioxide. Occasionally, a mosquito will get curious about the pretty light and make the fatal mistake of getting too close. But theres no guarantee that mosquito is even a female, and therefore  a biting mosquito. In fact, many of the mosquitoes found in bug zappers are actually nonbiting insects called midges. In 1977, researchers from the University of Guelph conducted a study to determine how effective bug zapper products are at killing mosquitoes and reducing mosquito populations where they are used. They found that just 4.1% of the insects killed in the bug zappers were female (and therefore biting) mosquitoes. The study also found the yards with bug zappers had higher numbers of female mosquitoes than those without bug zappers. University of Notre Dame researchers conducted a similar study in 1982, with similar results. In an average night, a single bug zapper in South Bend, Indiana, killed 3,212 insects, but only 3.3% of the dead insects were female mosquitoes. In addition, these researchers found that the UV light seemed to draw more mosquitoes to the area, leading to more mosquito bites.   In 1996, researchers at the University of Delaware tallied an entire summers worth of dead bugs from bug zappers. Of a total of 13,789 insects killed in the bug zappers, a paltry 0.22%  of them were biting mosquitoes or gnats. Worse, almost half of the dead insects were harmless, aquatic insects, an important food for fish and other stream inhabitants. These insects help control pest insect populations, meaning bug zappers could actually make pest problems worse. Scientists at the UF/IFAS Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory in Vero Beach, Florida, also examined the effectiveness of bug zappers in 1997. A single bug zapper in their study killed 10,000 insects in one night, but just eight of the dead bugs were mosquitoes. New Octenol Bug Zappers In recent years, a new type of zapper has appeared on the market that uses carbon dioxide and octenol—a nontoxic, pesticide-free pheromone—to attract mosquitoes. Logically, this new type of zapper should attract and kill more mosquitoes, leaving your yard pest-free. Unfortunately, studies show that octenol does little to increase the number of mosquitoes killed per night. Instead, it attracts even more mosquitoes to your yard, while killing about the same number of pests as a strip of sticky tape. Study after study has proven that bug zappers do very little or nothing at all to put a dent in the biting mosquito population. On the other hand, limiting mosquito breeding habitat and using appropriate mosquito deterrents like DEET does protect you from mosquito bites, and from the diseases mosquitoes carry. Sources Surgeoner, G. A., and B. V. Helson. 1977. A field evaluation of electrocutors for mosquito control in southern Ontario. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ontario 108:53–58.Nasci, RS, CW. Harris and CK Porter. 1983. Failure of an insect electrocuting device to reduce mosquito biting. Mosquito News. 43:180–184.Frick, TB and DW Tallamy. 1996. Density and diversity of nontarget insects killed by suburban electric insect traps. Ent. News. 107:77-82.University Of Florida, Institute Of Food Agricultural Sciences, 1997. Snap! Crackle! Pop! Electric Bug Zappers Are Useless For Controlling Mosquitoes, Says UF/IFAS Pest Expert Accessed September 4, 2012.

Do Bug Zappers Kill Mosquitoes

Mosquito bites arent just an annoyance; they can be deadly. Mosquitoes transmit serious diseases, from malaria to West Nile virus. If youre planning to spend any time outdoors, you should protect yourself from mosquito bites. Many people hang insect electrocution lights, or bug zappers, in their backyards to kill biting insects. Unfortunately, research shows that most bug zappers do little to eliminate mosquitoes. Worse, they are more likely to eliminate beneficial insects that provide food for birds, bats, and fish. How Bug Zappers Work Bug zappers attract insects using ultraviolet light. The light fixture is surrounded by a mesh cage, which is energized with a low-voltage current. Insects are drawn to the UV light, attempt to pass through the electrified mesh, and are subsequently electrocuted. Most bug zappers are designed with a collection tray where the dead insects accumulate. From dusk until dawn, homeowners with bug zappers hear the satisfying crackle of insects meeting their maker. How Mosquitoes Find Blood When evaluating mosquito control products, its important to understand how mosquitoes locate a source of blood. In other words, think about how the mosquito finds someone to bite. Regardless of whether theyre human, canine, equine, or avian, all living blood sources emit carbon dioxide. Mosquitoes, like most biting insects, can home in on the scent of carbon dioxide in the air. Research suggests a bloodthirsty mosquito can detect carbon dioxide from as far as 35 meters away from its source. At the slightest hint of CO2, the mosquito begins flying in zigzags, using trial and error to pinpoint the person or animal in the area. Carbon dioxide is the most powerful attractant for mosquitoes. Mosquitoes also use other scent clues to find people to bite. Perfume, sweat, and even body odor can attract mosquitoes. Research Proves Bug Zappers Are Ineffective for Killing Mosquitoes Bug zappers attract insects using ultraviolet light. Mosquitoes find their blood meals by following the trail of carbon dioxide. Occasionally, a mosquito will get curious about the pretty light and make the fatal mistake of getting too close. But theres no guarantee that mosquito is even a female, and therefore  a biting mosquito. In fact, many of the mosquitoes found in bug zappers are actually nonbiting insects called midges. In 1977, researchers from the University of Guelph conducted a study to determine how effective bug zapper products are at killing mosquitoes and reducing mosquito populations where they are used. They found that just 4.1% of the insects killed in the bug zappers were female (and therefore biting) mosquitoes. The study also found the yards with bug zappers had higher numbers of female mosquitoes than those without bug zappers. University of Notre Dame researchers conducted a similar study in 1982, with similar results. In an average night, a single bug zapper in South Bend, Indiana, killed 3,212 insects, but only 3.3% of the dead insects were female mosquitoes. In addition, these researchers found that the UV light seemed to draw more mosquitoes to the area, leading to more mosquito bites.   In 1996, researchers at the University of Delaware tallied an entire summers worth of dead bugs from bug zappers. Of a total of 13,789 insects killed in the bug zappers, a paltry 0.22%  of them were biting mosquitoes or gnats. Worse, almost half of the dead insects were harmless, aquatic insects, an important food for fish and other stream inhabitants. These insects help control pest insect populations, meaning bug zappers could actually make pest problems worse. Scientists at the UF/IFAS Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory in Vero Beach, Florida, also examined the effectiveness of bug zappers in 1997. A single bug zapper in their study killed 10,000 insects in one night, but just eight of the dead bugs were mosquitoes. New Octenol Bug Zappers In recent years, a new type of zapper has appeared on the market that uses carbon dioxide and octenol—a nontoxic, pesticide-free pheromone—to attract mosquitoes. Logically, this new type of zapper should attract and kill more mosquitoes, leaving your yard pest-free. Unfortunately, studies show that octenol does little to increase the number of mosquitoes killed per night. Instead, it attracts even more mosquitoes to your yard, while killing about the same number of pests as a strip of sticky tape. Study after study has proven that bug zappers do very little or nothing at all to put a dent in the biting mosquito population. On the other hand, limiting mosquito breeding habitat and using appropriate mosquito deterrents like DEET does protect you from mosquito bites, and from the diseases mosquitoes carry. Sources Surgeoner, G. A., and B. V. Helson. 1977. A field evaluation of electrocutors for mosquito control in southern Ontario. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ontario 108:53–58.Nasci, RS, CW. Harris and CK Porter. 1983. Failure of an insect electrocuting device to reduce mosquito biting. Mosquito News. 43:180–184.Frick, TB and DW Tallamy. 1996. Density and diversity of nontarget insects killed by suburban electric insect traps. Ent. News. 107:77-82.University Of Florida, Institute Of Food Agricultural Sciences, 1997. Snap! Crackle! Pop! Electric Bug Zappers Are Useless For Controlling Mosquitoes, Says UF/IFAS Pest Expert Accessed September 4, 2012.

Do Bug Zappers Kill Mosquitoes

Mosquito bites arent just an annoyance; they can be deadly. Mosquitoes transmit serious diseases, from malaria to West Nile virus. If youre planning to spend any time outdoors, you should protect yourself from mosquito bites. Many people hang insect electrocution lights, or bug zappers, in their backyards to kill biting insects. Unfortunately, research shows that most bug zappers do little to eliminate mosquitoes. Worse, they are more likely to eliminate beneficial insects that provide food for birds, bats, and fish. How Bug Zappers Work Bug zappers attract insects using ultraviolet light. The light fixture is surrounded by a mesh cage, which is energized with a low-voltage current. Insects are drawn to the UV light, attempt to pass through the electrified mesh, and are subsequently electrocuted. Most bug zappers are designed with a collection tray where the dead insects accumulate. From dusk until dawn, homeowners with bug zappers hear the satisfying crackle of insects meeting their maker. How Mosquitoes Find Blood When evaluating mosquito control products, its important to understand how mosquitoes locate a source of blood. In other words, think about how the mosquito finds someone to bite. Regardless of whether theyre human, canine, equine, or avian, all living blood sources emit carbon dioxide. Mosquitoes, like most biting insects, can home in on the scent of carbon dioxide in the air. Research suggests a bloodthirsty mosquito can detect carbon dioxide from as far as 35 meters away from its source. At the slightest hint of CO2, the mosquito begins flying in zigzags, using trial and error to pinpoint the person or animal in the area. Carbon dioxide is the most powerful attractant for mosquitoes. Mosquitoes also use other scent clues to find people to bite. Perfume, sweat, and even body odor can attract mosquitoes. Research Proves Bug Zappers Are Ineffective for Killing Mosquitoes Bug zappers attract insects using ultraviolet light. Mosquitoes find their blood meals by following the trail of carbon dioxide. Occasionally, a mosquito will get curious about the pretty light and make the fatal mistake of getting too close. But theres no guarantee that mosquito is even a female, and therefore  a biting mosquito. In fact, many of the mosquitoes found in bug zappers are actually nonbiting insects called midges. In 1977, researchers from the University of Guelph conducted a study to determine how effective bug zapper products are at killing mosquitoes and reducing mosquito populations where they are used. They found that just 4.1% of the insects killed in the bug zappers were female (and therefore biting) mosquitoes. The study also found the yards with bug zappers had higher numbers of female mosquitoes than those without bug zappers. University of Notre Dame researchers conducted a similar study in 1982, with similar results. In an average night, a single bug zapper in South Bend, Indiana, killed 3,212 insects, but only 3.3% of the dead insects were female mosquitoes. In addition, these researchers found that the UV light seemed to draw more mosquitoes to the area, leading to more mosquito bites.   In 1996, researchers at the University of Delaware tallied an entire summers worth of dead bugs from bug zappers. Of a total of 13,789 insects killed in the bug zappers, a paltry 0.22%  of them were biting mosquitoes or gnats. Worse, almost half of the dead insects were harmless, aquatic insects, an important food for fish and other stream inhabitants. These insects help control pest insect populations, meaning bug zappers could actually make pest problems worse. Scientists at the UF/IFAS Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory in Vero Beach, Florida, also examined the effectiveness of bug zappers in 1997. A single bug zapper in their study killed 10,000 insects in one night, but just eight of the dead bugs were mosquitoes. New Octenol Bug Zappers In recent years, a new type of zapper has appeared on the market that uses carbon dioxide and octenol—a nontoxic, pesticide-free pheromone—to attract mosquitoes. Logically, this new type of zapper should attract and kill more mosquitoes, leaving your yard pest-free. Unfortunately, studies show that octenol does little to increase the number of mosquitoes killed per night. Instead, it attracts even more mosquitoes to your yard, while killing about the same number of pests as a strip of sticky tape. Study after study has proven that bug zappers do very little or nothing at all to put a dent in the biting mosquito population. On the other hand, limiting mosquito breeding habitat and using appropriate mosquito deterrents like DEET does protect you from mosquito bites, and from the diseases mosquitoes carry. Sources Surgeoner, G. A., and B. V. Helson. 1977. A field evaluation of electrocutors for mosquito control in southern Ontario. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ontario 108:53–58.Nasci, RS, CW. Harris and CK Porter. 1983. Failure of an insect electrocuting device to reduce mosquito biting. Mosquito News. 43:180–184.Frick, TB and DW Tallamy. 1996. Density and diversity of nontarget insects killed by suburban electric insect traps. Ent. News. 107:77-82.University Of Florida, Institute Of Food Agricultural Sciences, 1997. Snap! Crackle! Pop! Electric Bug Zappers Are Useless For Controlling Mosquitoes, Says UF/IFAS Pest Expert Accessed September 4, 2012.

Do Bug Zappers Kill Mosquitoes

Mosquito bites arent just an annoyance; they can be deadly. Mosquitoes transmit serious diseases, from malaria to West Nile virus. If youre planning to spend any time outdoors, you should protect yourself from mosquito bites. Many people hang insect electrocution lights, or bug zappers, in their backyards to kill biting insects. Unfortunately, research shows that most bug zappers do little to eliminate mosquitoes. Worse, they are more likely to eliminate beneficial insects that provide food for birds, bats, and fish. How Bug Zappers Work Bug zappers attract insects using ultraviolet light. The light fixture is surrounded by a mesh cage, which is energized with a low-voltage current. Insects are drawn to the UV light, attempt to pass through the electrified mesh, and are subsequently electrocuted. Most bug zappers are designed with a collection tray where the dead insects accumulate. From dusk until dawn, homeowners with bug zappers hear the satisfying crackle of insects meeting their maker. How Mosquitoes Find Blood When evaluating mosquito control products, its important to understand how mosquitoes locate a source of blood. In other words, think about how the mosquito finds someone to bite. Regardless of whether theyre human, canine, equine, or avian, all living blood sources emit carbon dioxide. Mosquitoes, like most biting insects, can home in on the scent of carbon dioxide in the air. Research suggests a bloodthirsty mosquito can detect carbon dioxide from as far as 35 meters away from its source. At the slightest hint of CO2, the mosquito begins flying in zigzags, using trial and error to pinpoint the person or animal in the area. Carbon dioxide is the most powerful attractant for mosquitoes. Mosquitoes also use other scent clues to find people to bite. Perfume, sweat, and even body odor can attract mosquitoes. Research Proves Bug Zappers Are Ineffective for Killing Mosquitoes Bug zappers attract insects using ultraviolet light. Mosquitoes find their blood meals by following the trail of carbon dioxide. Occasionally, a mosquito will get curious about the pretty light and make the fatal mistake of getting too close. But theres no guarantee that mosquito is even a female, and therefore  a biting mosquito. In fact, many of the mosquitoes found in bug zappers are actually nonbiting insects called midges. In 1977, researchers from the University of Guelph conducted a study to determine how effective bug zapper products are at killing mosquitoes and reducing mosquito populations where they are used. They found that just 4.1% of the insects killed in the bug zappers were female (and therefore biting) mosquitoes. The study also found the yards with bug zappers had higher numbers of female mosquitoes than those without bug zappers. University of Notre Dame researchers conducted a similar study in 1982, with similar results. In an average night, a single bug zapper in South Bend, Indiana, killed 3,212 insects, but only 3.3% of the dead insects were female mosquitoes. In addition, these researchers found that the UV light seemed to draw more mosquitoes to the area, leading to more mosquito bites.   In 1996, researchers at the University of Delaware tallied an entire summers worth of dead bugs from bug zappers. Of a total of 13,789 insects killed in the bug zappers, a paltry 0.22%  of them were biting mosquitoes or gnats. Worse, almost half of the dead insects were harmless, aquatic insects, an important food for fish and other stream inhabitants. These insects help control pest insect populations, meaning bug zappers could actually make pest problems worse. Scientists at the UF/IFAS Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory in Vero Beach, Florida, also examined the effectiveness of bug zappers in 1997. A single bug zapper in their study killed 10,000 insects in one night, but just eight of the dead bugs were mosquitoes. New Octenol Bug Zappers In recent years, a new type of zapper has appeared on the market that uses carbon dioxide and octenol—a nontoxic, pesticide-free pheromone—to attract mosquitoes. Logically, this new type of zapper should attract and kill more mosquitoes, leaving your yard pest-free. Unfortunately, studies show that octenol does little to increase the number of mosquitoes killed per night. Instead, it attracts even more mosquitoes to your yard, while killing about the same number of pests as a strip of sticky tape. Study after study has proven that bug zappers do very little or nothing at all to put a dent in the biting mosquito population. On the other hand, limiting mosquito breeding habitat and using appropriate mosquito deterrents like DEET does protect you from mosquito bites, and from the diseases mosquitoes carry. Sources Surgeoner, G. A., and B. V. Helson. 1977. A field evaluation of electrocutors for mosquito control in southern Ontario. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ontario 108:53–58.Nasci, RS, CW. Harris and CK Porter. 1983. Failure of an insect electrocuting device to reduce mosquito biting. Mosquito News. 43:180–184.Frick, TB and DW Tallamy. 1996. Density and diversity of nontarget insects killed by suburban electric insect traps. Ent. News. 107:77-82.University Of Florida, Institute Of Food Agricultural Sciences, 1997. Snap! Crackle! Pop! Electric Bug Zappers Are Useless For Controlling Mosquitoes, Says UF/IFAS Pest Expert Accessed September 4, 2012.