Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Any contention depends upon some principal understanding about the issue being examined. Anyway extraordinary the partition in sentiment might be, there must exist probably some likeness in the participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ way of survey the issue if an answer is ever to be reached. Book One of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic includes a contradiction among Socrates and Thrasymachus about the idea of equity. The disaccord between their perspectives regarding the matter is amazingly articulated, however there are sure fundamental understandings which manage the course of the debate.One approach to assess the legitimacy of the contentions included is to look at whether the suspicions at the base of the contention are as per this shared conviction. By my perusing of the exchange, SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ answer to the initial segment of ThrasymachusÃ¢â¬â¢ meaning of equity rests securely upon this shared belief, while his response to ThrasymachusÃ¢â¬â¢ second definition moves from this commonly worthy base, and is harmed therefore. In investigating this subject, I mean to inspect quickly ThrasymachusÃ¢â¬â¢ two-section meaning of justice.For every one of these parts I will assess one Socratic reaction and talk about it from the point of view of the Ã¢â¬Å"craftsman analogyÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ a relationship which is at first utilized by regular assent, yet which Socrates adjusts until its unique use nearly vanishes. ThrasymachusÃ¢â¬â¢ first meaning of equity is anything but difficult to state, however it isn't so quickly clear how it is to be deciphered. Equity, he guarantees, is the upside of the more grounded. All alone, such a sentence could infer, that what is advantageous to the more grounded is only for and hence, helpful to the more vulnerable, and Socrates as needs be asks whether this comprehension is accurate.Thrasymachus quickly reacts in the negative. The translation he continues to clarify upon can be summarized by adjusting marginally his unique definition: equity is what get s the upside of the more grounded. To help this definition, he focuses to the case of administering a city. Any decision class will form the laws of the ward with a view to its own advantage, he states. Since it is simply to comply with the law, the individuals who carry on fairly will be representing the benefit of the rulers (whom Thrasymachus reciprocally terms Ã¢â¬Å"the strongerÃ¢â¬ ).Socrates makes his first protest as of now, however I will treat this here just by chance: only to the extent that it permits us to perceive any reason why Thrasymachus presents the skilled worker relationship. Socrates protests that rulers are, as people, bound to commit errors Ã¢â¬ to mistake their disservice for their preferred position once in a while. For this situation only acquiescence to laws would work to the rulerÃ¢â¬â¢s impediment. Thrasymachus reacts immediately, saying that a man who commits an error in deciding isn't at that point a ruler in the severe sense, and acquaints the s killed worker relationship with help this idea.Insofar as a man is an expert, he won't commit any errors; botches are established in obliviousness, thus can possibly happen when a manÃ¢â¬â¢s information on his specialty is inadequate. The issue which Socrates presents is hence kept away from by ThrasymachusÃ¢â¬â¢ capability that blunders are never made by rulers as rulers. Despite the fact that the similarity works from the start to ThrasymachusÃ¢â¬â¢ advantage, Socrates immediately turns it against him in another complaint. All expressions, he states, are practiced with a view to the advantage of the subject as opposed to the advantage of the artisan.The specialist utilizes his clinical workmanship for the improvement of the patient, the pilot explores for the security of the boat and the mariners, etc. Like Thrasymachus, he recognizes administering as a workmanship, and cases that administering additionally is practiced with a view to the subjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ advantage. All thro ugh the contention, Thrasymachus latently consents to SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ singular focuses. Be that as it may, as we will see later, he dismisses the end drawn from these. From a goal perspective, one quickly faulty part of this contention is SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ thought that administering is a craftsmanship in a similar sense that medication and route are arts.Despite its expected shortcoming in any case, SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ utilization of the relationship is the one piece of the contention which Thrasymachus can't address without bringing SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ first protest by and by into debate. In this manner this meaning of administering structures some piece of the shared opinion I have recently referenced. Albeit a complaint, for example, this may influence the target legitimacy of the contention, it is essential to remember the way that Socrates isn't endeavoring to make an incontestable meaning of equity at this point.He is simply noting an invalid contention by exhibiting its shortcoming s in wording which compare to ThrasymachusÃ¢â¬â¢ viewpoint. Disturbed by SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ line of thinking, Thrasymachus continues to exclaim an updated rendition of his unique explanation. Thrasymachus claims that foul play is more liberated and more grounded than equity and that it brings about a more joyful life. As in the previous definition, he doesn't consider so much what equity is as what it does; he rates the subject with respect to its advantageousness or scarcity in that department. Basically, this definition is an outrageous augmentation of the past one.Also, the model he utilizes for help Ã¢â¬ that of a despot fulfilled incredible and in this manner through treachery Ã¢â¬ notices back to his underlying definition as administering being the benefit of the more grounded. Unmistakably Thrasymachus has not been persuaded by SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ last contention, regardless of his obvious concurrence with SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ focuses. He is contending in various terms, yet in rea l substance this new improvement is minimal in excess of an exposed logical inconsistency of SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ past contention. He despite everything guesses that the out of line will have the favorable position, and does close to give new proof to help this view.He basically pronounces: Ã¢â¬Å"You state that the best possible ruler will consider the advantage of his subjects and accordingly act evenhandedly. I state that bad form prompts a glad life and that skilled workers do focus on their own favorable position. Ã¢â¬ Whereas the shortcomings in SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ recently talked about contentions are pretty much passable, there are a few factors in his next contention which make it questionable. In opening this contention, Socrates asks whether a simply man will need to exceed and outperform other just men. The two debaters concur that a simply man will regard it appropriate to outperform the unjustifiable man, yet that he won't have any desire to outperform his individual just man.The crooked man, then again, will need to outperform and show signs of improvement of everybody. Presently Socrates continues to utilize the skilled worker similarity to outline his case. With this case Socrates endeavors to demonstrate that the individuals who attempt to overextend their Ã¢â¬Å"likeÃ¢â¬ are terrible experts. Coming back to the particular case of the specialist, he sees that a clinical man won't attempt to exceed another doctor, yet will need to exceed the non-doctor. One imperfection appears to show up now in the contention. Socrates, doubtlessly, has left no spot in this for straightforward desire here.If the primary portion of this similarity is valid, there is no space for a craftsman to progress and improve his art in a fair way, on the grounds that except if he is shameful, he won't have any aspiration to outperform his kindred specialists. Anyway this can be replied by a look back at ThrasymachusÃ¢â¬â¢ idea of the craftsman Ã¢â¬Å"in the severe sense . Ã¢â¬ No one is a craftsman to the extent that he is in mistake, so the genuine craftsman will be not able to outperform another genuine craftsman: in a perfect world, the craftsman, to the extent that he is a craftsman, will as of now practice his specialty faultlessly.Socrates finishes this contention by saying that the person who attempts to overextend the craftsman can not have genuine information on the art. At the end of the day, genuine specialists will have the option to distinguish each other and to perceive the inconceivability of outperforming one another. Since the person who needs to outperform everybody in a particular workmanship must not be a craftsman, he is uninformed of this workmanship. In this manner, Socrates guarantees, the unfair man is extremely uninformed and along these lines frail and awful. There is a checked qualification between this utilization of the skilled worker similarity and previous employments. Beforehand the similarity was utilized concer ning the Ã¢â¬Å"craftÃ¢â¬ of ruling.This was authentic in the setting basically on the grounds that Thrasymachus consented to this utilization. Presently notwithstanding, the subject of the similarity isn't administering, yet equity. Thrasymachus never expressly consents to this switch, and accordingly when it is made, the relationship no longer rests securely upon the shared conviction. It is not, at this point a model acknowledged by the two gatherings thus its sole support would need to lay on a target perspective on the contention. So we have another significant inquiry to look at. That is, would justice be able to be appropriately viewed as a specialty? Regardless of whether it can from an ambiguous perspective, would it be appropriately comparable to different specialties like medication or navigation?There are motivations to help a negative response to this question. For a certain something, it could be contended that equity is increasingly a way of acting, as opposed to a n art in its own right. While it is outlandish to state that one can, for instance, read a book restoratively, or in an exploring way (aside from maybe as an interesting expression), one can practice an art or play out any activity either fairly or unfairly. Equity is all the more handily viewed as a proportion of how well an activity is performed than the activity itself. The most significant thing to note here is that Socrates has moved away from the shared conviction which has recently bolstered the argument.Before, the subject of whether SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ models are dispassionately legitimate was not all that critical from one perspective. For whatever length of time that Socrates was attempting to show the illogicalities inside ThrasymachusÃ¢â¬â¢ position, there was a lot to pick up from contentions dependent on ThrasymachusÃ¢â¬â¢ premises, regardless of whether the premises were valid or not. For this last contention, notwithstanding, Socrates does
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Are You Living With A Psychopath - Essay Example In acknowledgment of the individuals who have been manhandled, genuinely, ethically or monetarily, to every one of them, particularly to Alicia C. Cussi, who lived severely misused, stripped and tormented by Teresa. Her own little girl, Alicia, propelled the making of NEW ERA ELDERLY FOUNDATION, which will open to assist with improving the old everyday environments, forestalling any sorts of older maltreatment brought about by family visual deficiency and over the top certainty to somebody who might exploit and deceive the certainty, manhandling us them without any potential repercussions. A columnist went to Ensenada, Mexico. When he arrives, he goes to a grocery store. Upon appearance, a drifter is being bound by the police, being captured on the grounds that, being so eager, he ate a bit of bread in the store. The correspondent proposals to pay for the bread, just 30 pennies, and the watchmen let the poor free. The drifter was grieved and needs to repay the revealed. He pulls from his pocket a Rolex watch that he had attempted to pawn just minutes sooner; be that as it may, from the vibe of his appearance, the pawn director had not acknowledged. The correspondent, as well, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t acknowledge the watch and he is driven away by his companions to proceed with his outing. He watches out for the news and returns ordinarily to Ensenada, yet he doesn't discover the man; months after, he finds the drifter in California. The columnist chooses to lead the vagrant through the history and inspiration that he has needed to battle to fabricate an establishment to forestall the maltreatment of more established individuals who, similar to him and his mom, have been manhandled by a confided in relative.
Breaking down melodies must be one of the least satisfying errands, since it is in every case hard to make sense of not just what thought the writer attempted to get over, yet additionally whether the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s thought is a higher priority than the understanding of the audience.Advertising We will compose a custom exposition test on The Song with no Motive and the Songwriter without a Clue explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are various ways of thinking that give different responses to the given inquiry. Some state that the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s expectation is the main substantial translation; others guarantee that, when the work is discharged, it is available to analysis and can be seen through the crystal of different peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s vision. Thus the uncertainty concerning the Ã¢â¬Å"Omie WiseÃ¢â¬ comes. In spite of the fact that the issue raised by Anna Domino isn't unreasonably large, it despite everything offers a fascinating contemplative into the au thorÃ¢â¬â¢s universe. The very truth that the writer picked composing a letter as the way to pass on her message to the crowd makes the story told in the tune of a similar name look inconceivably genuine and, in this manner, extremely contacting. The creator, consequently, brings up an extremely impossible to miss issue, asking her crowd whether the main character of a tune ought to be seen as a novel character or a nonexclusive image. While the last is simpler to identify with, since it permits truly any audience to locate various purposes of contact with the picture being referred to, making a special character that has singular character characteristics and, subsequently, can be viewed as a convincing character is without a doubt a significantly more intriguing and certainly all the more testing task. Albeit a nonexclusive character ensures a moment accomplishment of a melody, being truly relatable, a one of a kind character will enable the crowd to develop by representing v arious moral inquiries and life decisions to its crowd. Offering a new gander at the old character, the writer of the article focuses on the noteworthiness of a character that the crowd can relate to. Another piece of data from The Rose and the Briar that was intended to leave an impression, the story behind Ã¢â¬Å"Pretty PollyÃ¢â¬ described by Rennie Sparks likewise merits being referenced as the issue that gives a ton of nourishment for considerations. As the writer asserts, the melody doesn't have any intention at all, which makes one wonder whether a tune can exist outside the fundamental guidelines of songwriting, for example, the requirement for an unmistakable thought process. From one viewpoint, the given thought appears to be totally ludicrous Ã¢â¬ being one of the key components of any melody by definition, a rationale sets the state of mind for the tune, makes the air and welcomes the crowd into its domain, also the way that an intention makes it feasible for a band o r a performer to play the tune. Ã¢â¬Å"Pretty Polly,Ã¢â¬ be that as it may, refutes the given standard, as Sparks demands, telling about a melody Ã¢â¬Å"cut from its unique epic length to frame a lean, secretive and severe people songÃ¢â¬ .Advertising Looking for exposition on craftsmanship and plan? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Described as a tune without an intention by the creator, it oddly makes a fascinating story canvas, hauling the crowd into it and making pictures in onesÃ¢â¬â¢ head; which is significantly all the more intriguing, these pictures change into bits of a riddle that fall into their places as the tune loosens up. The given in fact one of a kind marvel makes one wonder whether rationale is that significant for a melody. Albeit customarily, a thought process should be the magic that binds a tune, in the realm of present day music, different components of a melody can play out the given capacit y. For example, the creator of a melody can apparently depend entirely on music, deserting the story. Along these lines, the idea of well known music is extended to reach to the old style music, in which intention is as confused as a novel plot. Book index Domino, Anna. Ã¢â¬Å"Naomi Wise, 1807.Ã¢â¬ In The Rose and the Briar: Death, Love and Liberty in the American Ballad, ed. Sean Wilentz and Greil Marcus, 69Ã¢â¬80, New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 2010. Sparkles, Rennie. Ã¢â¬Å"Pretty Polly.Ã¢â¬ In The Rose and the Briar: Death, Love and Liberty in the American Ballad, ed. Sean Wilentz and Greil Marcus, 35Ã¢â¬50, New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 2010. References .Anna Domino, Ã¢â¬Å"Naomi Wise, 1807,Ã¢â¬ In The Rose and the Briar: Death, Love and Liberty in the American Ballad, ed. Sean Wilentz and Greil Marcus (New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 2010), 70. . Rennie Sparks, Ã¢â¬Å"Pretty Polly,Ã¢â¬ in The Rose and the Briar: Death, Love and Liberty in the American Ballad, ed. Sean Wil entz and Greil Marcus (New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 2010): 35. This paper on The Song with no Motive and the Songwriter without a Clue was composed and put together by client Nixon Kirkland to help you with your own investigations. You are allowed to utilize it for research and reference purposes so as to compose your own paper; notwithstanding, you should refer to it as needs be. You can give your paper here.
Friday, August 21, 2020
How important is the character of Friar Lawrence to the plot and dramatic quality of Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet Essay Example
How significant is the character of Friar Lawrence to the plot and sensational nature of Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet Essay In my paper I will expound on the imperativeness of Friar Lawrences job, this incorporates how he fitted into the entire plot, what sensational impact he had on the crowd and in particular I will expound on the three principle parts of his job. Minister Lawrence is an essential character in the play Romeo and Juliet. The play was composed by the well known William Shakespeare around 1600 AD. The play is around two star crossed sweethearts living in the town of Verona who originate from two extraordinary driving families who completely feel disdain for each other. These two families, Montague and Capulet have been purchased up in struggle against each other as a piece of an ever-enduring quarrel between the two driving individuals from the two most significant groups of Verona.The first time Romeo and Juliet see each other is at a yearly gathering that is held at the Capulets manor. As it is a disguise party Romeo figures out how to sneak in. it is here that Romeo first observes Julie t and they begin to look all starry eyed at from the outset sight. From that point on Romeo continually meets Juliet at her chateau stealthily. In doing this the bond between them two profoundly fortifies urging them both to settle on the lethal choice of getting hitched. Realizing that their folks could never affirm of their marriage, as a piece of the antiquated fight between both their families Romeo requests that Friar Lawrence marry him and Juliet in mystery without their folks assent or blessing.The explanation behind Romeo moving toward the Friar is on the grounds that he is to a greater degree an unbiased character as he is a companion of both the Montagues and the Capulets. The Friar is aware of this old fight between the two families and is stunned when Romeo first tells the Friar that he is love with Juliet. The Friar thinks about Romeos circumstance and after long contemplations chooses to wed them. This is stunning to the crowd in light of the fact that as a man of the Christian church and a strict man he would have been relied upon to respect the estimations of their folks. This leads the crowd to think about what the Friar is up to.Friar Lawrence knows Romeo and Juliet are acting against their folks wishes and he legitimizes this by saying In one regard Ill thy associate be, for this collusion may so glad demonstrate to transform your families hostility into unadulterated love. In saying this Friar would like to accomplish harmony between both the Montagues and the Capulet accepting that Romeos marriage will unite them. This prompts there being an extremely emotional condition encompassing the crowd since they realize the couples destiny will be a sensational one from the earliest starting point of the play and by Romeo and Juliet getting one in marriage, this leads them one bit nearer to their anticipating fate. Likewise it permits the crowd to foresee what the response of their folks will be the point at which they discover of this catastrophe . At the wedding Friar Lawrence cautions the couple to cherish each other tolerably as a lot of affection would lead their relationship to ruins These fierce joys have vicious finishes, this is a case of emotional incongruity, as the crowd realize that the couple are bound to die.While this is occurring ruler Capulet is orchestrating a day for Juliet to get hitched to a good man by the name of Paris. Juliets wishes are not to wed Paris however her dad perseveres on her. Regardless of this Juliet approaches the Friar so as to look for help to discover an answer for her concern. Due to the state Juliet is in, the Friar chooses to help Juliet, to keep her from hurting herself. The Friar summarizes a dozing mixture and offers it to Juliet saying Then is it likely thou shrink attempt a thing like demise to shide away this disgrace, copst with death himself to scape from it; and, if thou darst, Ill give thee cure. In giving Juliet the dozing mixture the Friar would like to cause it to cre ate the impression that Juliet is dead on her big day when as a general rule she is in a profound rest anticipating to wake up in Romeos arms in her family internment tomb.The Friar at that point starts to uncover his arrangement to Juliet. He advises her to return home and profess to her family all is well by disclosing to her dad that shell proceed with the wedding. The Friar likewise advises her to drink his elixir the night prior to the wedding. Hold, at that point. Return home, be cheerful; offer agree to wed Paris. Wednesday is tomorrow. Tomorrow evening look that thou lie alone; Let not the medical attendant lie with thee in thy chamber. Take thou dis refined alcohol drink thou off; when by and by through all thy veins will run a cold and sluggish cleverness. The Friars plan was for Juliet to take the mixture the night prior to the wedding to show up dead the morning after.This would alleviate her of her marriage with Paris. They would have the burial service and lay her body close by her dead cousin Tybalt inside her family tomb. The Friar would then send Romeo a letter clarifying his arrangement, advising Romeo to come back from Mantua to Verona and anticipate his wanted to wake up in his arms before disappearing to Mantua liberated from their folks, to live joyfully ever after. Will Romeo by my letters know our float; and here will he come, and he and I will watch thy waking, and that very night will Romeo bear thee subsequently to Mantua.Hence the reality of something turning out badly, Juliet acknowledged the Friars plan and did as she was told. The Friar at that point sent Romeo a letter clarifying his arrangement. The Friar confided in the letter with another minister and set him to his excursion to Mantua to convey the letter. On the morning of Juliets wedding day, her Nurse gets out for her however she doesn't reply so her Nurse enters her chamber and true to form discovers Juliet dead. Juliets family surge her to Friar Lawrence for help. The F riar at that point stuns the crowd immerging a far fetched climate upon them leaving the crowd in tension to discover what occurs next when Friar Lawrence deceives Juliets family which is so surprising from a strict man of a Christian church. In repliance to Lord Capulets request for help, the Friar says Dry up your tears and stick your rosemary on this reasonable corse, and, as the custom may be, and in her best cluster, bear her to church.At Juliets burial service, Benvolio sees Juliet being conveyed to the tomb and surges looking for Romeo to let him know Juliet is dead. On his approach to Mantua, he outperforms the cleric who is to convey the Friars letter to Romeo with his arrangement, so Romeo despite everything doesn't know about what is happening. Benvolio arrives at Romeo and is asked by Romeo how is my woman Juliet? Benvolio with tears in his eyes figures out how to answer she is dead my ruler. Romeo is stunned and in transit back to see Juliet he stops to purchase poison, while on his excursion back to Verona he goes past the minister with the Friars letter, however neither of them sees one another and carry on their journey.Romeo shows up at the tomb and before entering he approaches Benvolio to sit tight for him outside. He enters the tomb and sees Juliet lying close by Tybalt. He approaches Tybalt and approaches him for absolution for having executed him. He at that point approaches Juliet and accepting she is dead beverages the toxin he purchased before on. Minutes after the fact he kicks the bucket nearby his darling Juliet. The Friar without pondering climate Romeo got his message or not accept he did and goes to get together with him in the tomb like arranged. At the point when the Friar shows up at the tomb he sees Benvolio and asks him where Romeo is and Benvolio answers in saying that Romeo is inside the tomb, the Friar at that point surges inside to see Romeo dead laying adjacent to Juliet on the floor at that exact second Juliet stirs fr om her profound rest and asks the Friar Where craftsmanship my Romeo?The Friar hears a huge group drawing closer and in frenzy of being gotten for what he has done he answers to Juliet come Ill discard thee. Among a sister hood of blessed nuns stay not to address, yet the watch is coming. Come, go, great Juliet I dare know longer remain. Juliet then will not leave with the Friar after she sees Romeos dead body lying on the floor. Seeing Romeo dead before her makes her need to murder herself. The Friar at that point disregards her inside the tomb and flees. He does this since he doesn't need the two families to discover that he was liable for the passing of Romeo and that he was acting against the desires of their folks. Juliet then pulls for Romeos knife and wounds herself. It took the passings of two honest individuals to stop this old quarrel, to at last observe sense.In the Friar coming up short on the tomb and disregarding Juliet, carries the play to a peak. The impact this woul d have on a group of people would be stunning in light of the fact that the crowd would anticipate that the Friar should take ownership of what he did as opposed to fleeing from his errors and not talking the fault for causing this tragedy.I accept that the Friar ought not be condemned for having assisted Romeo and Juliet on the grounds that he was doing it for a decent motivation which was to stopped the quarrel between the two families and unite them in piece. Then again he didn't maintain the Christian estimations of a Christian church which the crowd and myself would have expected, he ought to have been honest with Romeo and Juliet and have exhorted them to be straightforward with their folks as opposed to helping them act stealthily behind their backs. It was the Friars three primary pieces of his job which purchased the play to a peak and left the crowd anxious to discover what might occur next carrying them closer to the play.
Tuesday, August 11, 2020
Margaret Atwoods Tasting Menu In November, the Wall Street Journal published âRethinking the Familiar Book Tour,â a piece that argued bookstore readings were (or should be) a thing of the past. For many, this was not a new argument. For others, especially in less urban areas, this concept was a bold one. It has made me wonder about how bookstores, authors, and readers can work together to build better, more engaging book events. There were no sock puppets or guitars. There were jokes, though, and even a song. Margaret Atwood may have been following a more traditional format than the Green brothers, but she still put on quite a show for the 1100 people in the audience. Atwood visited Houston as a part of Inprints Margaret Root Brown Reading Series. She had visited before, and the response to that visit was what made them shift the series from a small museum auditorium to the larger spaces available in the citys theater district. The turnout for this event proved that they made the right choice. Ms. Atwood began with what she referred to as a tasting menu of a reading, a few short excerpts from three of her more recent works. She started with the short story Stone Mattress, which appeared in The New Yorker last month. The story contains the subtle wit that readers have come to expect from Atwood, but when she reads it, the humor is no longer subtle. The story is funny. She is funny, and she knows it. She even laughs at her own jokes as she reads. With some people this might be annoying but with Atwood it is, somehow, endearing. The next item on the tasting menu was an excerpt from In Other Worlds, a collection of her essays and lectures on her relationship with speculative fiction. This particular essay dealt with her reading of the novel She by H. Rider Haggard. I learned very little about the novel, but I learned a lot about her development as a reader: I did not make a distinction between great literature or any other. I just liked reading. There were more jokes and more laughter. And then she told us that she was going to sing. The final taste came in the form of a chapter from The Year of the Flood. This particular chapter focused on one of the many religious festivals celebrated by Gods Gardners. She read the homily offered by Adam One on Mole Day and then sang the childrens hymn that followed. It was not as grand, Im sure, as the choral performances that were included as part of the book tour for the novels 2009 release, but it was pretty impressive, nonetheless. The one element that was present in all of these readings, and that wove its way through the question-and-answer period that followed, was humor. She made us laugh. She made herself laugh. Atwood explained that she makes these jokes, that she uses humor in her writing in the way that she does, because the subjects that she tackles are hard. They would become intolerable otherwise. When the interviewer, author Robert Boswell, commented on the fact that she was laughing at her own reading, she was quick to point out that she also cries at all the sad scenes: Its not all laughs, you know. And then she made another joke. Atwood played to her audience, talking about her love of science and making geology jokes fitting for a city that has its economy based in the oil and gas industries. She discussed her accidental role as an activist and the part that Twitter has played in that. She also talked about her audience. In the beginning, she wrote for the great reader in the sky with impeccable taste. Though her understanding of how publishing and the rest of the world works has changed since those early days (she said she could write a phone book now and it would get published), she is still writing for that all-knowing reader. There are just a few carefully chosen readers whose opinions she trusts, too. It may not have had the production value that John Greens tour stop did, but the audience was more than pleased. Even the teenagers. What are some of the more notable author events that you have attended? What made them stand out? ____________________________ Cassandra Neace teaches college students how to write essays and blogs about books and book-related goodness at Indie Reader Houston. Follow her on Twitter: @CassandraNeace.
Sunday, June 28, 2020
A companys name is commonly considered to be a curial part of its image and reputation, just like the quality of its products or the quality of its services and it is also widely accepted that the corporate name is the cornerstone of a companys relationship with its customers. (McNamara, 1998). Changing a companys name is a major policy decision contemplated by many firms and actually implemented by some year. Such name changes are sometimes a result of mergers or acquisitions to better describe the new combined business, and sometimes an attempt to acquire a new image and corporate identity. However, the process of changing a corporate name is painstaking, risky, and costly, therefore, name changes will not be initiated unless expected benefits outweigh expected costs (Bosch, 1989). Thus, the stock price reaction surrounding a corporate name change can be regarded as the name change effects. However, some ambivalent evident has appeared in the few studies that have considered the effect of name change on firm value. Horsky and Swyngedouw (1987) find that name change announcements can generate positive stock return. Bosch (1988) and Karpoff(1994) maintain that the name change effects are significantly positive before the announcement days but become insignificant after the announcement. Paul (1997) finds the name change effects have a significant effect on the service industry firms. Simil arly, Lee (2001) and Cooper (2001) find name change effects are large and significant positive for those firms which add .com into their name. 2 LITERARURE REVIEW Bosch and Hirschey (1989) collect 392 firms who change names from 1979 to 1986 period in Wall Street Journal (WSJ). After concerning other concurrent event such as announcement of merger and acquisition, stock split, the final sample just includes 79 name change firms. The methodology used to examine the abnormal return around the announcement actually is the market model event study. The market portfolio is the CRSP value-weighted index and the parameters are estimated over a 180-day period beginning 200 days before the announcement date and ending 21 days beforeÃâÃ ¼Ãâ¹Ã¢â¬ -200ÃâÃ ¼Ãâ¦Ã¢â¬â¢-21ÃâÃ ¼Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã °. After the test, they find that the cumulative average return (CAR) is 0.33% but insignificant for the whole event period (-10, +10). For 10 days before the name change announcement, the CAR is significantly positive with value of 2.3%, in contrast, for 10 days after the announcement, the CAR is significantly negative with -1.97%. Moreover, on the d ay of name change, the return of 0.53% is positive but insignificant. Then, the sample is further classified into 32 major and 47 minor name changes. Major name changes are whose new names are entirely different from the old, such as Varity Corp. versus Massey-Ferguson Ltd., and minor name changes would not completely affect company recognition, such as Lowen-stein M.Corp. versus M. LowensteinSons Corp. For major name changes, there is no significant effect; and Minor changes generate a significantly 0.75% positive return on the day of announcement, and also have a significantly 1.25% positive effect 5 days before the announcement. Therefore, they conclude that a positive market reaction to name change announcement is found for the overall sample but the effect is statistically weak and all firms negative valuation effects in the post-announcement period largely eliminate beneficial effects appeared during the announcement period. Karpoff and Rankine (1994) use a comparatively la rger sample of 147 firms announced name change from 1979 to 1987 in WSJ. Compared with the previous study, they mention that the WJS is not always the first public disclosure of the plan to change the companys name. Therefore the sample is divided into 4 different categories. There are 88 firms for the name change was mentioned or proposed in a proxy statement before the WSJ announcement; 87 firms refer to no concurrent announcement in the event period; 59 firms for no mention of name change in a prior proxy statement and 36 firms for which the WJS press date is not preceded by a proxy statement announcement of the name change and have no other announcements during the event period. The methodology here is also market model event study, differently; the parameters are estimated over a 200-day period beginning 31 days after the announcement date and ending 230 days after (+31, +230). The result is consistent with the Bosher (1989) and they find that the name change effect impark a si gnificantly positive cumulative return of 4.8% for 30 days before the announcement, but has no significant effect for the post-announcement. The CAR for When the authors take a close look on the 36 firms which have no concurrent event, they find those firms can generate a significant positive return of 1.56% in the two-day (-1,0 ) announcement period but yield no effect after the announcement. Therefore, this study fails to support the hypothesis that name change announcements increase shareholders wealth. Paul (1997) argue that the major problem for the previous studies is that none of them distinguished between the services and manufacturing industries. So their results may bias. He has some explanatory, such as firms in the manufacturing sector produce tangible products such as clothes, cars, computers etc. Therefore, a corporate name change signaling means a change in the direction of the firm and the quality of its products can be verified by examining the product, in contra st, the offering of service producers cannot easily achieve such verifications. Based on this, the sample only includes 28 firms from 1980 to 1990 in the service industry and the firms which changed their name because of mergers and acquisitions are excluded. Unlike the previous studies which use the market model event study approach, this study uses the trend analysis method. They focus on the trend of price per earnings ratio (P/E) because it is a good indication of the desirability of the firms share and eliminates possible size effects. They obtain P/E for five years before and after the name change for each firm and align all the events in time-order. The hypothesis is that if corporate name change signaling is effective, then post-event P/E ratios will be on average higher than pre-event P/E ratios. Finally, the trend analyses show that, on average, post-event P/E ratios are significantly higher than the pre-event P/E ratios. Therefore, corporate name change has a positive eff ect on firm in the services industry. Cooper, Dimitrov and Rau (2001) examine the effect of one particular form of corporate name change which firms add .com to their names. Concerning the concurrent announcement, the sample includes 95 publicly traded companies on the NYSE, AMEX, Nasdaq, and the OTC Bulletin Board (OTCBB) that changed their names between June1, 1998, and July 31, 1999. The new name has to be either a dotcom name (such as, Wareforce.com), a dotnet name (Docplus.net Corporation) or has to include the world Internet in it (e.g., Internet Solutions for Business Inc.) the sample is further classified into 4 different groups: (1) Pure internet companies, which do all their business on the internet; (2) Companies that have some prior involvement with the internet and change their name to better reflect this involvement; (3) Companies that change their focus from non-internet related business to internet-related; (4) Companies whose core business is not internet-related . Besides using the similar event study approach which parameters are estimated over a 151 days period from 30 days before the announcement and 120 days after, the author also use price-matched control group of firms to calculate the abnormal returns. That is, choosing 95 firms which did not change their names during the time period and also their price is the closest to the dotcom sample firms. Inconsistent with the previous studies, the results show that over a five-day period (-2, +2), all firms earn a strongly statistically significant abnormal return of 53%. Moreover, the name change effects of internet-related firms are the biggest which is significantly positive with 105% and the name change have the greatest long-horizon (+1, +120) effect for non-internet related firms with the value of 243%. Over the entire period from (-30, +30), all firms earn a significant return of 89% and there is also no significant reduction on CARs from day (+1, +120). Inconsistent with Bosch (1989) and Karpoff( 1994) who find a small initial positive stock price reaction to name changes is reversed within a few trading days after the announcement date. The finding suggest that firms change their name to a dotcom can experience a permanent value increase. The authors mention that maybe this is due to mania-investors seem to be eager to be connected with the Internet at all costs and this hypothesis is supported by the fact that the non-internet related firms experience the greatest long-horizon returns for the name change effects. Three years after, Cooper, Khorana, Osobov and Rau (2004) examine the stock price reactions to Internet related name changes which are .com additions and deletions in a market downturn. A sample of 183 firms that add a dot.com and 67 firms that delete a dot.com is collected from NYSE, Amex, Nasdaq, and the OTC between Jan 1, 1998 and Aug 31, 2001. The sample is divided into period of hot versus cold markets which use an empirical proxy Amex [email protected]@citve Index to measure. To be conservative, they use three different data which are Feb 1, 2000, Sep 1, 2000 and Apr 1, 2001 as the cutoff date. In order to test whether the price reaction is related to the type of name change, the sample is further separated into two types of name changes. Minor name changes refer to a firm merely adds to or deletes a dot.com from its name and Major name changes refer to a firm not only adds to or deletes dot.com from its name but also changes its name altogether. Using the same method as the previous one, the authors find no significant marker reaction towards to the hot Internet period (Pre-Feb, 2000) for dot.com deletions. In contrast, the cumulative return over the whole period (-30, +30) is significant positive with 64% after Feb, 2000. Moreover, the effect of major changes is significantly greater than the minor changes. When using a cutoff date of Sep 1, 2000, the CAR goes up to 70.2% and continues to increase to 77.5% when using the date of April, 2001. Finally, they also find the results for dot.com additions obtained by the previous study also hold in an out-of-sample period. To be more persific, the CAR for all dot.com additions from Jan, 1998 to Aug, 1999 is significantly positive with 118.6% and the major name changes have greater effect than the minor name changes on the stock price. In the boom period (Pre-Feb, 2000), the effect of dot.com additions is significantly positive with 101.8% but have no significant impact in the bust period (Post-Feb, 2000). Therefore, firms that change their name to a dot.com name in the internet boom period and delete the dot.com from their name in the internet slump period can generate large gains in shareholder wealth. 3 CONLUSION Almost all the above studies are using market model event study to measure the abnormal return. As Fama, Fisher, Jensen and Roll (1969) who first used the event study methodology to estimate the effect of the announcement of a stock split on stock prices, this methodology was widely used as an effective approach to measure the abnormal return over the event period when the value of information announced. Some implications can be drawn from the above studies. Firms can generate a significantly positive return before the announcements of name changes. Bosch (1989) and Karpoff (1994) state that the market reaction to name change announcement is positive but statistically weak as all firms negative valuation effects in the post-announcement period largely eliminate beneficial effects appeared during the announcement period. The WSJ does not publish all the news, and sometimes the news is out in other forms before it is published, so there may have a limitation in the study of Bos ch (1989) as he just uses WSJ to define the event date, therefore the results maybe bias. Although Karpoff(1994) fits this limitation, he finds the same results. Even though event date uncertainty will be a problem, the event study design is still effective. Testing accumulated excess returns over a slightly longer period allows a research to detect events without precisely examine the timing of the event. (Glenn,1990) The market may react positively just for some particular name changes in some industry. Inconsistent with Bosch (1989) and Karpoff(1994), Paul (1997) finds a significantly positive name change effect on the stock market. Cooper (2001) finds firms can experience significantly great long-horizon returns for the name change effects which add .com to their old names. Some irrational investor behavior may exist in the stock market and some manager may take advantage of this irrationality to time corporate events such as name changes. During Internet Fever, when inves tors take internet as important to how business will be managed in the future and firms also want to be identified with the internet, so .com suffix can identifies a firm with the internet, sending a clear and unambiguous signal to shareholders and the general investing public. Since internet firms may be perceived as having great potential about long-run growth and profitability, investor may be more likely invest in the firms with the announcement of .com name changes and this will contribute to an increase in stock prices and trading activity. Based on the result of Cooper (2001), Stock prices of all internet firms may be irrationally high and name change effects bring a significantly positive return of 118.6%. After testing that the non-internet related firms experience the greatest long-horizon returns for the name change effects, the behavior of Investors buying and selling activity toward firms which change their names may reflects that investors are irrationally influenced b y cosmetic effects. It is difficult to believe that investors get no information about stock holdings over the event time period. Also, Cooper (2004) examines the different stock reactions towards .com deletions and additions in internet boom and slump period. Firms that change their name to a dot.com name in the internet boom period and delete the dot.com from their name in the internet slump period both can generate large gains in shareholder wealth. In the sample, firms which add .com to their names occur mostly in the internet boom period and delete .com to their old names occur mostly in the internet slump period. It seems that firms are all obviously too eager to be detected as an Internet company while dot.com market valuations were increasing fast, but not willing to be connected with the Internet sector once it became perceived as slump. According to this, we may surmise that smart managers rationally take advantage of investors irrational behavior and do in fact try to tim e corporate events to make full use of both positive and negative investor opinions.
Saturday, May 23, 2020
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